Very often, when reading articles or studies about skin care or side effects of some cosmetic products, we cannot completely understand the meaning of some terms. This article explains how to not waste time on guessing.
The hair follicle is an independent complex that includes the root of the hair, the glandular complex, the sebaceous and sweat glands, the muscle lifting the hair, the circulatory system, and the nerve.
Hyperpigmentation is the diffusive or excessive coloration of skin pigment in large or local areas. It can be caused by dermatological pathologies or genetics.
The dermis is the middle layer of the skin, formed by connective tissue. It consists of blood vessels and hair follicles. There are three layers of dermis: papillary, mesh, and elastic fibers.
Oily skin means an excessive formation of sebum in the dermis. It can be associated with hormonal changes, genetic predisposition, etc.
A decollete zone is an area of the female body that goes from the base of the neck to the upper chest.
Keratin is a dominant protein. It is responsible for the quality and structure of the skin, hair, and nails.
Keratinocytes are cells of epithelial tissue, represented by the protein keratin.
Skin fat is a substance that is produced in the dermis and is intended to moisturize and protect the skin.
Collagen is a protein found in the skin, providing elasticity.
Combined skin is a skin combination of two types – dry and oily. Dry or normal skin usually forms the cheek area. More oily T-zone includes forehead, nose, and chin. Combined type of skin is very common.
Melanin is a pigment that gives the skin color.
Melanocytes are skin cells that produce the pigment melanin.
Normal skin is a skin with well-balanced moisture level and normal work of the sebaceous glands.
Pores are the holes that allow sebum to enter the skin to moisturize and protect it.
Dry skin is the quality of the skin when pores are narrow, which does not allow enough moisture through it. Dry skin is the reason for wrinkles, cracks, and flakes.
The epidermis is the upper, thin layer of skin that regenerates. It is the protection against external factors.
Acne is a pathological condition of the skin, in the form of pimples or cysts. It is associated with a violation of sebum production. It narrows pores and increases activity of pathogenic microorganisms.
Allergy is the sensitivity of skin to allergens. The symptoms are swelling, flushing, or itching.
Atopic dermatitis is a chronic allergic skin disease characterized by general and local skin symptoms, in particular, itching.
Hyperemia is redness of the skin, and can be local or general.
Dermatitis is inflammation of the skin.
Wrinkles are folds of the skin that are formed due to loss of elasticity and other factors.
Psoriasis is a noninfectious dermatological disease characterized by skin rashes and psoriatic plaques.
Rosacea is a chronic relapsing dermatological disease that affects mostly women. It is characterized by hyperemia of the skin and the formation of papules, pustules along with puffiness.
Seborrhea is a disease associated with a violation of the work of sebaceous glands situated in the scalp.
Furuncle is a purulent inflammation of the hair follicle characterized not only by local symptoms, but also by a worsening condition.
Eczema is a dermatological disease that is characterized by relapses, and skin eruptions in the form of papules with liquid contents.
UVB lamp is a medical device for the treatment of dermatological diseases, and to improve the condition of skin, hair, and nails. It speeds up the remission and reduces the chance of relapse.
Hyaluronic acid is a mucopolysaccharide that is found in the epithelium, connective, and nerve tissue. Its main function is the ability to retain water in the intercellular space. This property is used in the production of many cosmetics and skin care products.
The hygroscopic effect is the ability to attract and retain water molecules from the environment.
A hypoallergenic action is a term that describes cosmetics that are proven to be safe after conducting appropriate tests in clinical laboratories.
Gommage is gentle peeling associated with the use of cosmetic products, allowing the removal of dead cells and the renewal of the upper layer of skin.
Dermabrasion is a modern kind of deep layered mechanical peeling. It helps to eliminate scars, skin defects, and other dermatological problems.
UVA protection is a system of protection from ultraviolet rays in sunscreen cosmetic products. It varies from RA + (low UVA protection) to RA +++ (high UVA protection).
Lipids are substances that nourish and moisturize.
pH is the level of acidity or alkalinity of the cosmetic product. If the pH of the product is significantly different from the skin pH, it can lead to dermatological problems. The optimal pH level for the skin is 4.7.
Free radicals are molecules that cause damage to skin cells. They are formed under the influence of ultraviolet rays or pollution. Using antioxidants and sunscreen can stop their effect.
Skincare system includes a complex of cosmetic care products: cream, lotion, tonic, scrub.
Moisturizers contain hygroscopic elements that help moisturize the skin.
Moisturizing factor (NMF) is a complex of amino acids that are necessary for moisture retention. Its level determines the skin dryness or oiliness. The minimum level characterizes dry skin and high risk of negative impact of external factors. The sun’s rays or the tanning bed also reduce the NMF factor and lead to excessive dryness.
UV absorbers and UV filters are chemical compounds that promote the absorption and blocking of radiation, protecting the skin from negative effects.
Factor-SPF is a necessary property of sunscreen. It is contained in every cosmetic sunscreen product (SUN PROTECTION FACTOR). The value starts from 2 to 50 units.
Chemical peeling removes dead cells of the epidermis, improving the texture of the skin, eliminating fine wrinkles.
An exfoliant is a product that is used to remove dead cells from the surface of the skin.